Custom Search

Thursday, March 19, 2009

Textile finishing processes

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance

Treatments enhancing appearance include such processes as napping and shearing, brushing, singeing, beetling, decating, tentering, calendering or pressing, moiréing, embossing, creping, glazing, polishing, and optical brightening.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Napping and shearing

Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft surface. The process involves passing the fabric over revolving cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short, loose fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently applied to woollens and worsteds and also to blankets.

Shearing cuts the raised nap to a uniform height and is used for the same purpose on pile fabrics. Shearing machines operate much like rotary lawn mowers, and the amount of shearing depends upon the desired height of the nap or pile, with such fabrics as gabardine receiving very close shearing. Shearing may also be applied to create stripes and other patterns by varying surface height.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Brushing

This process, applied to a wide variety of fabrics, is usually accomplished by bristle-covered rollers. The process is used to remove loose threads and short fibre ends from smooth-surfaced fabrics and is also used to raise a nap on knits and woven fabrics. Brushing is frequently applied to fabrics after shearing, removing the cut fibres that have fallen into the nap.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Singeing

Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied to both yarns and fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz. This is accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a gas flame or heated copper plates at a speed sufficient to burn away the protruding material without scorching or burning the yarn or fabric. Singeing is usually followed by passing the treated material over a wet surface to assure that any smoldering is halted.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Beetling

Beetling is a process applied to linen fabrics and to cotton fabrics made to resemble linen to produce a hard, flat surface with high lustre and also to make texture less porous. In this process, the fabric, dampened and wound around an iron cylinder, is passed through a machine in which it is pounded with heavy wooden mallets.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Decating

Decating is a process applied to woollens and worsteds, man-made and blended fibre fabrics, and various types of knits. It involves the application of heat and pressure to set or develop lustre and softer hand and to even the set and grain of certain fabrics. When applied to double knits it imparts crisp hand and reduces shrinkage. In wet decating, which gives a subtle lustre, or bloom, fabric under tension is steamed by passing it over perforated cylinders.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance »Tentering, crabbing, and heat-setting

These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions. Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a tenter frame, consisting of chains fitted with pins or clips to hold the selvages of the fabric, and travelling on tracks. As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are removed, the weave is straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size. When the process is applied to wet wools it is called crabbing; when applied to synthetic fibres it is sometimes called heat-setting, a term also applied to the permanent setting of pleats, creases, and special surface effects.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance »Calendering

Calendering is a final process in which heat and pressure are applied to a fabric by passing it between heated rollers, imparting a flat, glossy, smooth surface. Lustre increases when the degree of heat and pressure is increased. Calendering is applied to fabrics in which a smooth, flat surface is desirable, such as most cottons, many linens and silks, and various man-made fabrics. In such fabrics as velveteen, a flat surface is not desirable, and the cloth is steamed while in tension, without pressing. When applied to wool, the process is called pressing, and employs heavy, heated metal plates to steam and press the fabric. Calendering is not usually a permanent process.

Moiréing, embossing, glazing and ciréing, and polishing. These are all variations of the calendering process. Moiré is a wavy or “watered” effect imparted by engraved rollers that press the design into the fabric. The process, applied to cotton, acetate, rayon, and some ribbed synthetic fabrics, is only permanent for acetates and resin-treated rayons.Embossing imparts a raised design that stands out from the background and is achieved by passing the fabric through heated rollers engraved with a design. Although embossing was formerly temporary, processes have now been developed to make this effect permanent.

Glazing imparts a smooth, stiff, highly polished surface to such fabrics as chintz. It is achieved by applying such stiffeners as starch, glue, shellac, or resin to the fabric and then passing it through smooth, hot rollers that generate friction. Resins are now widely employed to impart permanent glaze. Ciré (from the French word for waxed) is a similar process applied to rayons and silks by the application of wax followed by hot calendering, producing a high, metallic gloss. Ciré finishes can be achieved without a sizing substance in acetates, which are thermoplastic (e.g., can be softened by heat), by the application of heat.

Polishing, used to impart sheen to cottons without making them as stiff as glazed types, is usually achieved by mercerizing the fabric and then passing it through friction rollers.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Creping

crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method, which is not permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence of steam, between hot rollers filled with indentations producing waved and puckered areas. In the more permanent caustic soda method, a caustic soda paste is rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form; or a resist paste may be applied to areas to remain unpuckered and the entire fabric then immersed in caustic soda. The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If the pattern is applied in the form of stripes, the effect is called plissé; an allover design produces blister crepe.

Textile finishing processes » Basic methods and processes » Finishes enhancing appearance » Optical brightening

Optical brightening, or optical bleaches, are finishes giving the effect of great whiteness and brightness because of the way in which they reflect light. These compounds contain fluorescent colourless dyes, causing more blue light to be reflected. Changes in colour may occur as the fluorescent material loses energy, but new optical whiteners can be applied during the laundering process.


Anonymous said...

It's amazing designed for me to have a web page, which is good designed for my knowledge. thanks admin

Also visit my webpage - no carb foods

Anonymous said...

I'm amazed, I have to admit. Rarely do I encounter a blog that's both equally educative and entertaining, and let
me tell you, you've hit the nail on the head. The issue is something that too few folks are speaking intelligently about. I'm very happy that I stumbled across this during my search for
something relating to this.

my blog post ... paleo diät ernährungspyramide

Anonymous said...

I every time spent my half an hour to read this blog's articles everyday along with a cup of coffee.

Here is my web page ... fernkurs spanisch

Anonymous said...

Attractive component of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to claim that I get in fact loved account
your weblog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing to your augment and even I
achievement you get entry to persistently rapidly.

my webpage: Low Carb Ernährung

Anonymous said...

I will right away snatch your rss as I can't find your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you've any?

Please allow me know in order that I may subscribe. Thanks.

Here is my web blog - premium wordpress themes 2011

Anonymous said...

Hi this is kind of of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors
or if you have to manually code with HTML. I'm starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

Feel free to surf to my site - wordpress grundlagenkurse

Anonymous said...

Thank you, I have just been looking for info approximately this topic for a long time and
yours is the greatest I've came upon till now. But, what about the conclusion? Are you sure in regards to the source?

Here is my page :: lenkmatte erklärung

Anonymous said...

Turn $200 into $5,000 Every Month - Secret Reveled!

Learn this simple way to make an extra income from home.

Anonymous said...

just dropping by to say hi
[url=]this link[/url]

Anonymous said...

Hello! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization?
I'm trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I'm not seeing very good
results. If you know of any please share. Thank you!

Also visit my page :: cheapest auto insurance quotes

Anonymous said...

Hey! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be okay. I'm definitely enjoying your blog
and look forward to new updates.

Here is my web-site :: hartford auto insurance