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Sunday, December 26, 2010

Textile Inspection

Magnetic particle inspection is a nondestructive testing method which can be used in the evaluation of all ferrous materials. Like other forms of nondestructive testing, this method has the advantage of not damaging or compromising the materials being tested during the testing process. This method is one of the fastest and least expensive ways to test ferrous materials before certifying them as safe and ready for use.

Dry Cleaning Process 4 steps

There are four stages to the dry cleaning process: accepting the clothing, inspection, washing, and drying. All four stages are required for every item that is dry cleaned. The dry cleaning process involves harsh chemicals and there have been changes to the process as part of a strategy to reduce the environmental impact of the waste product. However, you can check with your dry cleaner to determine if they are using environmentally friendly processes.

Dry Cleaning Process

Dry Cleaning Process
The dry cleaning process uses solvents to clean clothes and fabrics without any water. The most commonly used solvent is tetracholoroethylene. Dry cleaning is a service provided by a company with the special equipment required to dry clean materials and safely dispose of the waste product. This is a fee for use service, with a flat rate for different fabric types and additional charges for stain removal.

Textile Equipment

Textile plants operate with the use of a wide range of machinery and equipment that make it possible to create, refine, and package the goods produced. In some cases, the textile equipment is utilized to create the thread or yarn that will ultimately be shipped to other companies that produce fabrics for clothing, towels, and housewares like draperies and bedding. The most basic of all equipment of this type is usually associated with one of four specific processes: dyeing, carding, spinning, and weaving.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Avoid wrinkling Modal

To avoid wrinkling while traveling, modal garments can be rolled up as opposed to folded. Rolling also tends to take up less space, leaving more room in luggage. Modal garments should not be left on hangers as the prolonged hanging can cause the garments to distort and may also break some of the fibers, weakening the garment and causing it to lose some of its elasticity. Such garments should be stored flat or rolled to protect the fabric while also avoiding wrinkles.

Modal care instruction

If small stains have appeared on modal fabric, it may be possible to get them out with hand scrubbing and a gentle detergent. The fabric should not be soaked or vigorously rubbed to remove stains. The earlier a stain is treated, the better; when a stain is brand new, blotting with cool water can sometimes flush out the stain, especially if a gentle detergent is added to encourage the stain to lift. If the fabric becomes wrinkled, it can be ironed at a low temperature. Fabric that is dulled may benefit from ironing to restore the sheen by smoothing the individual fibers.

Care Textile for Modal

Some modal fabric items are delicate and they should be hand washed in cool water with a mild detergent, wrapped in a towel to squeeze out the water, and then dried flat in the shade. More robust items can be washed on a gentle cycle with cool water and then either tumble dried low on a short cycle or laid out to dry. Modal should not be washed or dried in high heat or subjected to bleach and other harsh cleaners.

Modal Design textile

Modal Design

Modal was first developed by the Austria Lenzing company, who trademarked the fabric's name, but now many manufacturers make their own versions. The textile has particularly taken off in Indian companies. In the United States, modal is most often seen in bed sheets, towels, and robes, popularized in part by Bed, Bath & Beyond. However, it is slowly gaining ground as a clothing material as well. In Europe, where the fabric originated, it is already widely used in clothing as a replacement for cotton

Modal textile

Modal is a processed bio-based textile made from reconstituted cellulose from the beech tree. It is very soft and popular for both clothing and household textiles such as bedding, upholstery, and towels. Modal may be used on its own or in a blend with cotton, spandex, or other textiles. In many ways, modal acts like cotton, but it also has some significant advantages over cotton.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Pantone Goe System

On September 5, 2007 Pantone introduced the Goe System. Goe consists of over 2,000 new colors in a brand new matching and numbering system. In addition to the standard swatch books (now called the GoeGuide), the new system also includes adhesive-backed GoeSticks, interactive software, tools, and an online community where users are able to share color swatches and information.
The Goe system is streamlined to use fewer base colors (10 + Clear coating for reflections) and accommodates many technical challenges in reproducing colors on a press.

Pantone Color

Pantone colors are described by their allocated number (typically referred to as, for example, 'PMS 130'). PMS colors are almost always used in branding and have even found their way into government legislation (to describe the colors of flags). In January 2003, the Scottish Parliament debated a petition (reference PE512) to refer to the blue in the Scottish flag (saltire) as 'Pantone 300'. Countries such as Canada and South Korea and organizations such as the FIA have also chosen to refer to specific Pantone colors to use when producing flags. U.S. states including Texas have set legislated PMS colors of their flags.

Pantone System

The Pantone system also allows for many 'special' colors to be produced such as metallics and fluorescents. While most of the Pantone system colors are beyond the printed CMYK gamut, it was only in 2001 that Pantone began providing translations of their existing system with screen-based colors. (Screen-based colors use the RGB—red, green, blue—system to create various colors.) The Goe system has RGB and LAB values with each color.

YMCK Pantone

One such use is standardizing colors in the CMYK process. The CMYK process is a method of printing color by using four inks—cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. The vast majority of the world's printed material is produced using the CMYK process, and there is a special subset of Pantone colors that can be reproduced using CMYK. Those that are possible to simulate through the CMYK process are labeled as such within the company's guides.

Original Pantone Color Matching System

The Pantone Color Matching System is largely a standardized color reproduction system. By standardizing the colors, different manufacturers in different locations can all refer to the Pantone system to make sure colors match without direct contact with one another.

Pantone number

Pantone began as a commercial printing company in the 1950s. In 1956, they hired recent Hofstra University graduate Lawrence Herbert as a part-time employee. Herbert used his chemistry knowledge to systematize and simplify the company's stock of pigments and production of colored inks; by 1962, Herbert was running the ink and printing division at a profit, while the commercial-display division was $50,000 in debt; he subsequently purchased the company's technological assets from his employers and renamed them "Pantone"

PMS pantone matching system

Pantone Matching System (PMS), a proprietary color space used in a variety of industries, primarily printing, though sometimes in the manufacture of colored paint, fabric, and plastics.
In October 2007, X-Rite Inc, a supplier of color measurement instruments and software, purchased Pantone for $180 million

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Inspection fabric and Measuring Machines

Inspection fabric and Measuring Machines
This machine provides fast, easy quality control for counting fabric yardage. It has a low, fast drop-in loading bar and edge guide in the back. All speed controls are in one location for simple operation. It comes fully equipped with variable speed motor and foot control, two rods, cones, and manual edge guide.

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Slider tensile strength test

Slider tensile strength test
The Body to Puller Strength is measured by this test. The complete slider is mounted on a special jig and load is applied to the Puller while keeping the Body fixed at 90 degrees. The resistance of the slider is measured till failure and is recorded. Tensile Tester velocity used in the above tests varies between 100~300 mm / min and the standard Clamp width used is 25mm.


To determine the Zipper Strength the Zipper Chain in closed position is clamped
in-between specially designed Jaws of 25 mm width and pulled at a fixed speed
at 90 degree angle to the chain interlocked direction.
The resistance is measured in till failur


There are various methods to evaluate Zipper & Slider quality. The procedures in various quality
standards worldwide are more or less similar and are documented well under ASTM, ISO, BIS, JIS,
DIN, ISI and other well known International Standards.
Zipper & Slider strengths are checked as a routine inspection, For this the method laid out in
JIS-S3015 is used. The same standard is used by the YKK also, the world's leading Zipper manufacturer.
The basic strength can be determined based on the following inspection methods, from which all round
strength appropriate for respective uses can be judged.

Sunday, November 7, 2010

Judge 4 point inspection fabrics

Acceptability of Roll/Shipment – Fabric shipments exceeding the following point totals are considered to be second quality and not acceptable.
• Warp knits – average of 20 points per 100 linear yards
• Synthetic/synthetic blends weft knits – average of 20 points per 100 linear yards
• Synthetic wovens – average of 20 points per 100 linear yards
• Twills, cottons, linens – average of 25 points per 100 linear yards
No individual roll should be considered first quality if the point total exceeds 30 points per 100 linear yards.

Method 4 point fabric inspection

Inspection Method – the face side of the fabric should always be inspected. Fabric mill and garment maker should check for side-center-side shading, shading from roll to roll and shading from beginning to end of roll. A proper light box (in Color Manual should be near the vincinity of the inspection frame to ensure proper color evaluation during inspection. Defects not visible on the face of the fabric are not counted unless there has been a decision/agreement to do so between fabric supplier and garment maker . Defects outside the cuttable width, on the selvage, should not be counted.

4point inspection fabrics

Roll Size – Minimum and maximum roll size and the acceptable number of joins will be agreed to by fabric supplier and garment maker before the beginning of each season. Fabric supplier and garment maker should also agree whether fabric edges are to be trimmed.

Inspection fabric 4 point

Inspection Sample Size – Fabric mills should perform 100% inspection of all fabrics during the put-up grading each roll for defects. Garment makers should inspect a minimum of 10% of each fabric shipment received. Tightened and loosened inspection should be employed by T1 as appropriate so any problem fabrics receive an inspection of greater than 10% and those better performing fabrics receive less inspection.

Fabric inspection

Inspection Lighting – Examination and grading is to be performed with overhead direct lighting to determine faults on the surface of the fabric. The overhead direct lighting should be mounted parallel to the viewing surface. The frame should be tilted so that the fabric passes at an angle of 45 – 60 degrees to the horizontal. Overhead CWF lighting is recommended and should provide an illumination level of a minimum of 100 foot candles (1075 lux) on the surface of the fabric.

Fabric inspection

Inspection Speed – The fabric should be inspected at a speed which is compatible with the inspector’s ability and the type of fabric being audited. The speed should not exceed 25 (twenty-five) yards per minute.

Wool textile

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from the hair of sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, vicuña, alpaca, and camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits.
Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters)

Cashmere wool fiber

Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from Cashmere and other goats. The word cashmere derives from an old spelling of Kashmir.
Cashmere wool is fine in texture, and it is also strong, light, and soft. When it is made into garments, they are extremely warm to wear.

Steel wool

Steel wool, also known as wire wool, is a bundle of strands of very fine soft steel filaments, used in finishing and repairing work to polish wood or metal objects, as well as for household cleaning.
Steel wool is made from low-carbon steel (low enough to be close to plain iron). It is not made by drawing "steel wool wire" through a tapered die, but rather by a process more like broaching where a heavy steel wire is pulled through a toothed die that removes a thin wire shaving.

Mineral wool fiber

Mineral wool, mineral fibres or man-made mineral fibres are fibres made from natural or synthetic minerals or metal oxides. The latter term is generally used to refer solely to synthetic materials including fibreglass, ceramic fibres and rock or stone wool. Industrial applications of mineral wool include thermal insulation, filtration, soundproofing, and germination of seedlings.

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Fabric inspection 4 point software

An inspection is one of the most common sorts of review practices found in software projects. The goal of the inspection is for all of the inspectors to reach consensus on a work product and approve it for use in the project. Commonly inspected work products include software requirements specifications and test plans. In an inspection, a work product is selected for review and a team is gathered for an inspection meeting to review the work product. A moderator is chosen to moderate the meeting. Each inspector prepares for the meeting by reading the work product and noting each defect. The goal of the inspection is to identify defects. In an inspection, a defect is any part of the work product that will keep an inspector from approving it. For example, if the team is inspecting a software requirements specification, each defect will be text in the document which an inspector disagrees with

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Embroidered patches

Embroidered patches have the advantage of three-dimensional texture, but the limitations, especially with regard to small detail, have created the need for other methods. Dye sublimation can create photographic detail and woven patches look similar to embroidered but allow for small lettering detail.
shoulder sleeve insignia, (often abbreviated SSI) is an embroidered patch used by major formations of the United States Army. Each formation has a unique formation patch, and the US Army is unique among the US armed services in that all soldiers are required to wear the patch of their headquarters as part of their military uniforms.
Shoulder sleeve insignia receive their name from the fact that they are most commonly worn on the upper left shoulders of all US Army uniforms, though they can be placed on other locations, notably a combat helmet. Shoulder sleeve insignia worn on the upper right shoulders on Army uniforms denote former wartime service. These "combat patches" will not be worn on the new Army service uniform. Instead a 2 inch metal replica will be worn on the right breast pocket and is officially known as the Combat Service Identification Badge.

Iron on Patch

An embroidered patch is an embroidered design on firm backing that is applied to clothing by organizations to distinguish membership or rank, by youth groups to mark accomplishments, and by individuals for art or expression
Iron-on, heat seal, and sew-on are the three most common types of patches. Iron-on can be created by applying heat from a household iron, but heat seal requires a professional machine. Both heat types melt the thermoplastic glue and adhere it after drying, but heat seal requires the higher temperature and pressure of a professional heat press machine. Sew-on patches can be applied with fabric glues or sewn on. Other backings include rubber, magnet, velcro, and sticky. Sticky backing using something comparable to 'double sided sticky tape' and is often chosen when the badge application is temporary (such as at business conferences).

Tagless care symbol

Tagless Thermal Transfer
Tagless transfer labels are applied using a heat press, however you can also use a household iron set on high or cotton setting. Simply pass over the logo (logo is on paper which you iron down on fabric of choice). Pass over for a few seconds till the transfer liquifies, allow to cool, peel back paper. Ground color is clear.
Go tagless heat transfer clothing tags use a household iron setting on “cotton” or high to be adhered to garment fabric. Great for t-shirts, bedding sheets, commercial uniforms, or a modern twist to fashion identification.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Iron on tags

iron on tags
In certain clothing articles, a label or other affixed instructions that report how a product should be refurbished. This type of label is required by the FTC, Federal Trade Commission, for certain clothing items in the United States of America. A label including a tax identification number and material content list may also be required for certain textile items. The common textile labels used on garments can be classified into four main groups - Woven labels, Leather labels, PVC/Plastic Labels, and Embroidered Labels. It is one of the primary tools used to establish brand identity.

Kids name labels

kids name labels
A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article. Labels have many uses: product identification, name tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication. Special types of labels called digital labels (printed through a digital printing) can also have special constructions such as RFID tags, security printing, and sandwich process labels.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Finishing- processing of textiles

Finishing- processing of textiles
The grey cloth,woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes. Desizing Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size.

Scouring Textile

* Scouring
Scouring, is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and non-fibrous impurities (eg the remains of seed fragments) from the fibres and any added soiling or dirt. Scouring is usually carried in iron vessels called kiers. The fabric is boiled in an alkali, which forms a soap with free fatty acids. (saponification). A kier is usually enclosed, so the solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would degrade the cellulose in the fibre. If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove size from the fabric although desizing often precedes scouring and is considered to be a separate process known as fabric preparation. Preparation and scouring are prerequisites to most of the other finishing processes. At this stage even the most naturally white cotton fibres are yellowish, and bleaching, the next process, is required.

Textile bleaching

* Bleaching
Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural coloration and remaining trace impurities from the cotton; the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the required whiteness and absorbency. Cotton being a vegetable fibre will be bleached using an oxidizing agent, such as dilute sodium hydrochlorite or dilute hydrogen peroxide. If the fabric is to be dyed a deep shade, then lower levels of bleaching are acceptable, for example. However, for white bed sheetings and medical applications, the highest levels of whiteness and absorbency are essential

Mercerized cotton Textile

* Mercerising
A further possibility is mercerizing during which the fabric is treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results in improved lustre, strength and dye affinity. Cotton is mercerized under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released or shrinkage will take place. Mercerizing can take place directly on grey cloth, or after bleaching.
Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, crease resist and other special effects but four important non-chemical finishing treatments are:

Singeing Textile

* Singeing

Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, then passes over a plate heated by gas flames.

Raising Textile

* Raising

Another finishing process is raising. During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.

Calendering Textile

* Calendering

Calendering is the third important mechanical process, in which the fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface properties and relative speeds.

Shrinking (Sanforizing) Textile

* Shrinking (Sanforizing)

Finally, mechanical shrinking (sometimes referred to as sanforizing), whereby the fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.

Dyeing Textile

* Dyeing

Finally, cotton is an absorbent fibre which responds readily to colouration processes. Dyeing, for instance, is commonly carried out with an anionic direct dye by completely immersing the fabric (or yarn) in an aqueous dyebath according to a prescribed procedure. For improved fastness to washing, rubbing and light, other dyes such as vats and reactives are commonly used. These require more complex chemistry during processing and are thus more expensive to apply.

Textile printing

* Printing
Textile printing

Printing, on the other hand, is the application of colour in the form of a paste or ink to the surface of a fabric, in a predetermined pattern. It may be considered as localised dyeing. Printing designs on to already dyed fabric is also possible.

Textile manufacturing

Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based in the conversion of three types of fibre into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. These are then fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results.

Friday, August 6, 2010

Viscose fiber

Viscose is a viscous organic liquid used to make rayon and cellophane. Viscose is becoming synonymous with rayon, a soft material commonly used in shirts, shorts, coats, jackets, and other outer wear.
At first wood pulp is dissolved in caustic soda (lye) and after steeping is shredded and allowed to age. Ageing contributes to viscosity and longer aging leads to greater viscosity. The aged pulp is then treated with carbon disulphide to form a yellow-colored cellulose xanthate, which is dissolved in caustic soda again, but of a lower concentration

Rayon fiber

Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulose fiber. Because it is produced from naturally occurring polymers, it is neither a truly synthetic fiber nor a natural fiber; it is a semi-synthetic or artificial fiber. Rayon is known by the names viscose rayon and art silk in the textile industry. It usually has a high luster quality giving it a bright sheen.

Lyocell fiber process

Preparing the wood pulp Hardwood trees are harvested and trucked to the mill where they are cut to 20 ft (6.1m) lengths and debarked by high-pressure water jets. Next, the logs are chipped by a machine into squares about the size of postage stamps. The chips are digested chemically to soften them enough to be mechanically milled to a wet pulp. This pulp is washed with water, and may be bleached. Then it is dried into a continuous sheet and rolled onto spools. At this stage, it has the consistency of thick posterboard paper. The roll of cellulose weighs some 500 lb (227 kg).

Dissolving the cellulose At the Lyocell mill, several rolls of pulp are broken into one-inch squares and mixed with amine oxide in a heated, pressurized vessel.; the cellulose fibers begin to dissolve.

Filtering When the cellulose solution has become clear, it is pumped through filters to insure that all the chips are dissolved and to remove any remaining foreign material that would otherwise clog the spinners.
Spinning The solution is then pumped through spinnerets, devices used with a variety of manmade fibers. The spinneret is pierced with small holes rather like a showerhead; when the solution is forced through it, long strands of fiber come out. The fibers are then immersed in another solution of amine oxide, diluted this time, which sets the fiber strands. Then they are washed with de-mineralized water.
Drying and finishing The Lyocell fiber next passes to a drying area, where the water is evaporated from it. The strands then pass to a finishing area, where a lubricant, which may be a soap or silicone or other agent depending on the future use of the fiber, is applied. This step is basically a detangler, making the following steps of carding and spinning into yarn easier.
Final steps The dried, finished fibers are at this stage in a form called tow, a large untwisted bundle of continuous lengths of filament. The bundles of tow are taken to a crimper, a machine which compresses the fiber, giving it texture and bulk. The crimped fiber is carded by mechanical carders, which perform an action like combing, to separate and order the strands. The carded strands are cut and baled for shipment to a fabric mill. The entire manufacturing process, from unrolling the raw cellulose to baling the fiber, takes about two hours. After this, the Lyocell may be processed in many ways. It may be spun with another fiber, such as cotton or wool. The resulting yarn can be woven or knitted like any other fabric, and given a variety of finishes, from soft and suede-like to silky.
Recovery of the solvent The amine oxide used to dissolve the cellulose and set the fiber after spinning is recovered and re-used: the dilute solution is evaporated to remove the water, leaving amine oxide which is used for dissolving the next batch of cellulose. 98% of the amine oxide is typically recovered.

Lyocell fiber

Lyocell is a regenerated cellulose fiber made from dissolving pulp (bleached wood pulp). It was first manufactured in 1987 by Courtaulds Fibres UK at their pilot plant S25. As of 2010[update] it is manufactured by Lenzing AG of Lenzing, Austria, under the brand name "Lyocell by Lenzing", and under the brand name Tencel by the Tencel group, now owned by Lenzing AG.
The US Federal Trade Commission defines Lyocell as "a cellulose fabric that is obtained by an organic solvent spinning process". It classifies the fibre as a sub-category of rayon.
The fiber is used to make textiles for clothing and other purposes.

Modal spandex fiber

Modal is a cellulose fiber made by spinning reconstituted cellulose from beech trees. It is about 50% more hygroscopic (water-absorbent) per unit volume than cotton. It takes dye just like cotton, and is color-fast when washed in warm water. Modal is essentially a variety of rayon.
Textiles made from Modal are resistant to shrinkage and fading. They are smooth and soft, more so than mercerized cotton, to the point where mineral deposits from hard water do not stick to the fabric surface. Modal fabrics should be washed at lower temperatures and ironed after washing.
Lenzing Modal is a registered trademark of Lenzing AG, an Austrian company specializing in textiles and fibers, particularly natural fibers made from cellulose. Modal has been used alone or with other fibers in household linens such as towels, bathrobes, and bedsheets, and the fabric has increased in popularity in the early twentyfirst century.
Many textile companies use Modal mixed with other fibers such as spandex. Modal has gained ground in India; Indian textile companies were expected to produce around 4000 tons in 2005

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

Clariant Textile Chemicals

Confidence in textiles – this has been the motto of the independent test institutes of the International Oeko-Tex Association since 1992, with its tests for harmful substances according to the Oeko-Tex Standard 100 for textile products. The Oeko-Tex Standard 100 is a globally uniform testing and certification system for textiles (yarn, fibers, fabrics). For companies in the textile and clothing industry, the Oeko-Tex criteria catalog provides a uniform, scientifically founded evaluation standard for the human ecological safety of textiles.
Additionally, the well-known Oeko-Tex label informs interested end users of the additional benefits of tested safety for skin-friendly clothing and other textiles.


Novartis International AG is a multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, ranking number three in sales, which accounted 36.173 billon in 2008. It is currently the 6th largest Pharmaceutical company in terms of revenue ($41.5 billion in 2009) with a profit margin of about 20%, which is the same as its industry competitors. Their profits were down by 31% from 2007 levels.[4] Novartis manufactures drugs such as clozapine (Clozaril), diclofenac (Voltaren), carbamazepine (Tegretol), valsartan (Diovan), imatinib mesylate (Gleevec / Glivec), ciclosporin (Neoral / Sandimmun), letrozole (Femara), methylphenidate (Ritalin), terbinafine (Lamisil), and others. Novartis owns Sandoz, a large manufacturer of generic drugs. The company formerly owned the Gerber Products Company, a major infant and baby products producer, but sold it to Nestlé on 1 September 2007.

Novartis is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) and of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA)

Friday, June 18, 2010

Washing care symbol instruction


Max Temperature 60C/140F - Bedlinen, towels, and some underwear
Max Temperature 60C/140F, gentle cycle - Bedlinen, towels and some underwear
Max Temperature 50C/122F, gentle cycle - Polyester, cotton/polyester, polyester/cotton
Max Temperature 40C/104F - Cotton
Temperature 40C/104F, gentle cycle - Acrylics, acetate, nylon, tri-acetate, cotton/acrylic, poly/viscose
Max Temperature 40C/104F, gentlest cycle - Wool and wool mixtures
Max Temperature 30C/86Fm gentle cycle
Hand wash
Do not wash
A short line under any of the above indicates reduce cycle, moisture, and/or heat

Drying care symbol


Tumble Dry
Do not Tumble Dry
Drip Dry
Hand dry after removing excess water
Dry flat after removing excess water

Iron care symbol


Hot 220C/392F - Cotton, linen, viscose
Warm 150C/302F - Polyester mixes
Cool 110C/230F - Acrylic, nylon, acetate,
Do not iron

Sunday, May 9, 2010

Types of Recyclable Plastic

# The chasing arrow symbol contains a number in the center, one through seven. Types 1, 2, and 3 are common for containers, and type 3 is also used for piping, siding, medical equipment. Type 4 is sometimes used in plastic bags and squeezable bottles, as well as various cloths. Type 5 is most often found in open-top containers, such as yogurt cups, as well as medicine bottles and other containers. Type 6 is used for egg cartons, disposable plates and cups, aspirin bottles. Type 7 plastics include a large number of plastics that don't fit into the other categories, and are often non-recyclable.

Identification recycle code

Most plastics are generally identified by numbers embossed on their bottoms enabling us to know how safe they are for home use and how to recycle them. The numbers from 1-7, indicate the type and amount of resin in them.
Regardless of the number, it doesn't guarantee that something can be recycled. That depends on the current demand or resale market for a specific plastic, the amount of recycled products that can be made from it, the cost to collect it and transport it to recycling facilities, and what it is used for once processed. At any given time, only certain types of plastics are actually recyclable; other types simply end up in landfills.
Plastics being marked with the recycling triangle of chasing arrows enclosing a number doesn't automatically mean an item can be recycled. Some plastics have no second-life use and market demand for them is minimal. The markings only indicate the resin type. The following type plastics use the following codes. Plastics without codes, even toys, should be avoided, as their content would be unknown and possibly even less safe than known unsafe products.

Poly Lactic Acid

Polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the U.S.) or sugarcanes (rest of world). Although PLA has been known for more than a century, it has only been of commercial interest in recent years, in light of its biodegradability.
Other biodegradable polymers

* Cellophane
* Plastarch material
* Polycaprolactone
* Polyglycolide
* Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
* Zein

Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE)

Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE)
VLDPE is defined by a density range of 0.880–0.915 g/cm3. VLDPE is a substantially linear polymer with high levels of short-chain branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with short-chain alpha-olefins (for example, 1-butene, 1-hexene and 1-octene). VLDPE is most commonly produced using metallocene catalysts due to the greater co-monomer incorporation exhibited by these catalysts. VLDPEs are used for hose and tubing, ice and frozen food bags, food packaging and stretch wrap as well as impact modifiers when blended with other polymers.
Recently much research activity has focused on the nature and distribution of long chain branches in polyethylene. In HDPE a relatively small number of these branches, perhaps 1 in 100 or 1,000 branches per backbone carbon, can significantly affect the rheological properties of the polymer.

Low density polyethylene (LDPE)

Low density polyethylene (LDPE)
LDPE is defined by a density range of 0.910–0.940 g/cm3. LDPE has a high degree of short and long chain branching, which means that the chains do not pack into the crystal structure as well. It has, therefore, less strong intermolecular forces as the instantaneous-dipole induced-dipole attraction is less. This results in a lower tensile strength and increased ductility. LDPE is created by free radical polymerization. The high degree of branching with long chains gives molten LDPE unique and desirable flow properties. LDPE is used for both rigid containers and plastic film applications such as plastic bags and film wrap.

Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)

Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)
LLDPE is defined by a density range of 0.915–0.925 g/cm3. LLDPE is a substantially linear polymer with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with short-chain alpha-olefins (for example, 1-butene, 1-hexene and 1-octene). LLDPE has higher tensile strength than LDPE, it exhibits higher impact and puncture resistance than LDPE. Lower thickness (gauge) films can be blown, compared with LDPE, with better environmental stress cracking resistance but is not as easy to process. LLDPE is used in packaging, particularly film for bags and sheets. Lower thickness may be used compared to LDPE. Cable covering, toys, lids, buckets, containers and pipe. While other applications are available, LLDPE is used predominantly in film applications due to its toughness, flexibility and relative transparency.

Medium density polyethylene (MDPE)

Medium density polyethylene (MDPE)
MDPE is defined by a density range of 0.926–0.940 g/cm3. MDPE can be produced by chromium/silica catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts. MDPE has good shock and drop resistance properties. It also is less notch sensitive than HDPE, stress cracking resistance is better than HDPE. MDPE is typically used in gas pipes and fittings, sacks, shrink film, packaging film, carrier bags and screw closures.

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX or XLPE)

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX or XLPE)
PEX is a medium- to high-density polyethylene containing cross-link bonds introduced into the polymer structure, changing the thermoplast into an elastomer. The high-temperature properties of the polymer are improved, its flow is reduced and its chemical resistance is enhanced. PEX is used in some potable-water plumbing systems because tubes made of the material can be expanded to fit over a metal nipple and it will slowly return to its original shape, forming a permanent, water-tight, connection.

Ultra low molecular weight polyethylene (ULMWPE or PE-WAX)

Ultra low molecular weight polyethylene (ULMWPE or PE-WAX)
HDPE is defined by a density of greater or equal to 0.941 g/cm3. HDPE has a low degree of branching and thus stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength. HDPE can be produced by chromium/silica catalysts, Ziegler-Natta catalysts or metallocene catalysts. The lack of branching is ensured by an appropriate choice of catalyst (for example, chromium catalysts or Ziegler-Natta catalysts) and reaction conditions. HDPE is used in products and packaging such as milk jugs, detergent bottles, margarine tubs, garbage containers and water pipes.

Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

UHMWPE is polyethylene with a molecular weight numbering in the millions, usually between 3.1 and 5.67 million. The high molecular weight makes it a very tough material, but results in less efficient packing of the chains into the crystal structure as evidenced by densities of less than high density polyethylene (for example, 0.930–0.935 g/cm3). UHMWPE can be made through any catalyst technology, although Ziegler catalysts are most common. Because of its outstanding toughness and its cut, wear and excellent chemical resistance, UHMWPE is used in a diverse range of applications. These include can and bottle handling machine parts, moving parts on weaving machines, bearings, gears, artificial joints, edge protection on ice rinks and butchers' chopping boards. It competes with Aramid in bulletproof vests, under the tradenames Spectra and Dyneema, and is commonly used for the construction of articular portions of implants used for hip and knee replacements.

polyethylene vinyl acetate

Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of long chains of the monomer ethylene (IUPAC name ethene). The recommended scientific name polyethene is systematically derived from the scientific name of the monomer. In certain circumstances it is useful to use a structure-based nomenclature; in such cases IUPAC recommends poly(methylene) (poly(methanediyl) is an non-preferred alternative. The difference in names between the two systems is due to the opening up of the monomer's double bond upon polymerization.
The name is abbreviated to PE in a manner similar to that by which other polymers like polypropylene and polystyrene are shortened to PP and PS respectively. In the United Kingdom the polymer is commonly called polythene, although this is not recognized scientifically.
The ethene molecule (known almost universally by its common name ethylene) C2H4 is CH2=CH2, Two CH2 groups connected by a double bond, thus:
* Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)
* Ultra low molecular weight polyethylene (ULMWPE or PE-WAX)
* High molecular weight polyethylene (HMWPE)
* High density polyethylene (HDPE)
* High density cross-linked polyethylene (HDXLPE)
* Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX or XLPE)
* Medium density polyethylene (MDPE)
* Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)
* Low density polyethylene (LDPE)
* Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE)

Saturday, May 8, 2010

Plus size clothes

Plus size clothing is a general term given to clothing sized specifically for larger sized or overweight people.Plus-size refers generally to clothing labelled size (US) 14 / (UK) 18 and upwards for women, and for sizes over XL for men. Also called Outsize in some countries (predominantly British), this term has been losing favour since the 1990s. A synonymous term for men's plus-size clothing is big and tall.
Plus size clothing patterns have traditionally been graded up from a smaller construction pattern, however many retailers are using statistical data collected from their own measuring projects, and from specialized Body Scan Data collection projects to modernize the fit and construction of their garments. U.S. companies Lane Bryant and Catherines teamed up over a three-year period to source data to modernize the companies' garment construction. Fourteen thousand women were measured in what was the most extensive female sizing study in the U.S. in over 60 years.


A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt which is pulled on over the head to cover most of a person's torso. A T-shirt is usually buttonless and collarless, with a round neck and short sleeves. However, many people incorrectly use the term T-shirt to describe any short sleeved shirt or blouse; a polo shirt or other collared shirt is not a T-shirt. The sleeves of the T-shirt extend at least slightly over the shoulder but not completely over the elbow (in short-sleeve version). A shirt that is either longer or shorter than this ceases to be a T-shirt. T-shirts are typically made of cotton or polyester fibers (or a mix of the two), knitted together in a jersey stitch that gives a T-shirt its distinctive soft texture. T-shirts can be decorated with text and/or pictures, and are sometimes used to advertise (see human billboard).
T-shirt fashions include styles for men and women, and for all age groups, including baby, youth, and adult sizes.

Thursday, April 29, 2010

Fiber optic network

Fiber optic network

Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Additionally, the per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second by NTT although 10 or 40 Gb/s is typical in deployed systems. Each fiber can carry many independent channels, each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)). The net data rate (data rate without overhead bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead, multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008). The current laboratory fiber optic data rate record, held by Bell Labs in Villarceaux, France, is multiplexing 155 channels, each carrying 100 Gb/s over a 7000 km fiber.[19] Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation have also managed 69.1 Tb/s over a single 240km fibre (multiplexing 432 channels, equating to 171 Gb/s per channel). Bell Labs also broke a 100 Petabit per second kilometer barrier

Fiber optic cable

Fiber optic cable
Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those which can only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 550 meters (1,800 ft).
Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them together with an electric arc. Special connectors are used to make removable connections.
Cable jetting
Data cable
Fiber Bragg grating
Glass transition
Gradient-index optics
Leaky mode
Light Peak
Optical communication
Optical fiber connector
Physics of glass
Small form-factor pluggable transceiver
Strength of glass
Submarine communications cables
Transparency and translucency
vector soliton
fiber laser

Fiber cable

Fiber cable
An optical fiber is made up of the core(carrying the light pulses), the cladding (reflecting the light pulses back into the core) and the buffer coating (protecting the core and cladding from moisture, damage etc.). Together, all of this creates a fiber optic which can carry up to 10 million messages at any time using light pulses. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.

Fiber optic patch cable

Fiber optic patch cable
OFC: Optical fiber, conductive
OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive
OFCG: Optical fiber, conductive, general use
OFNG: Optical fiber, nonconductive, general use
OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive, plenum
OFNP: Optical fiber, nonconductive, plenum
OFCR: Optical fiber, conductive, riser
OFNR: Optical fiber, nonconductive, riser
OPGW: Optical fiber composite overhead ground wire

Fiber patch cables

fiber patch cables
An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Patch cords
The buffer or jacket on patchcords is often color-coded to indicate the type of fiber used. The strain relief "boot" that protects the fiber from bending at a connector is color-coded to indicate the type of connection. Connectors with a plastic shell (such as SC connectors) typically use a color-coded shell. Standard color codings for jackets and boots (or connector shells) are shown below:

Host Apparel Garment

Apparel Garment host
American Apparel is the largest clothing manufacturer in the United States.[4] It is a vertically integrated clothing manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer that also performs its own design, advertising, and marketing. It is best-known for making basic cotton knitwear such as T-shirts and underwear, but in recent years it has expanded - to include leggings, leotards, tank tops, vintage clothing, dresses, pants, denim, bedding and accessories for men, women, children, babies and dogs.

Friday, March 19, 2010

Sports apparel

sports apparel
Most sports and physical activities are practiced wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear garments include short pants, T-shirts, tennis shirts, tracksuits, and trainers. Specialized garments include wet suits (for swimming, diving or surfing), salopettes (for skiing) and leotards (for gymnastics). Also, spandex materials are often used as base layers to soak up sweat. Spandex is also preferable for active sports that require form fitting garments, such as wrestling, track & field, dance, gymnastics and swimming.

Women's clothing

women's clothing
The use of animal fur in clothing dates to prehistoric times. It is currently associated in developed countries with expensive, designer clothing, although fur is still used by indigenous people in arctic zones and higher elevations for its warmth and protection. Once uncontroversial, it has recently been the focus of campaigns on the grounds that campaigners consider it cruel and unnecessary. PETA, along with other animal rights and animal liberation groups have called attention to fur farming and other practices they consider cruel.

Men's apparel

men's apparel
A feature of all modern human societies is the wearing of clothing, a category encompassing a wide variety of materials that cover the body. The primary purpose of clothing is functional, as a protection from the elements. Clothes also enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Further, clothes provide a hygienic barrier, keeping toxins away from the body and limiting the transmission of germs.

Clothing performs important social and cultural functions. A uniform, for example, may identify civil authority figures, such as police and army personnel, or it may identify team, group or political affiliations. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.

Store Apparel

American Apparel is the largest clothing manufacturer in the United States. It is a vertically integrated clothing manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer that also performs its own design, advertising, and marketing. It is best-known for making basic cotton knitwear such as t-shirts and underwear, but in recent years it has expanded - to include leggings, leotards, tank tops, vintage clothing, dresses, pants, denim, bedding and accessories for men, women, children, babies and dogs.

Friday, March 12, 2010

supply chain management software apparel

supply chain management software apparel
While stocking shelves and building displays is often done when the product is delivered, it is increasingly a separate activity from delivering the product. In grocery stores, for example, almost all products delivered directly to the store from a manufacturer or wholesaler will be stocked by the manufacturer's/wholesaler's employee who is a full time merchandiser. Product categories where this is common are Beverage (all types, alcoholic and non-alcoholic), packaged baked goods (bread and pastries), magazines and books, and health and beauty products. For major food manufacturers in the beverage and baked goods industries, their merchandisers are often the single largest employee group within the company. For nationwide branded goods manufacturers such as The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, their respective merchandiser work forces number in the thousands.

erp supply chain apparel

In the supply chain, merchandising is the practice of making products in retail outlets available to consumers, primarily by stocking shelves and displays. While this used to be done exclusively by the stores' employees, many retailers have found substantial savings in requiring it to be done by the manufacturer, vendor, or wholesaler that provides the products to the retail store. In the United Kingdom there are a number of organizations that supply merchandising services to support retail outlets with general stock replenishment and merchandising support in new stores. By doing this, retail stores have been able to substantially reduce the number of employees needed to run the store.

tech merchandise

tech merchandise
In Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia, the term “merchandising” is commonly used within the trading industry and denotes all marketing and sales stimulation activities around PoS (point of sale): design, creation, promotion, care and training of the sales staff. Basically a merchandiser is someone who is continuously involved in business promotion by buying and selling of goods. In Asian countries such as India, this term is more synonymous with activities right from sampling or idea conception to dispatching of the shipment. It is a job description that involves leading and working with different departments within the organization, suppliers and buyers to deal with timely deadlines and accepted quality levels.

apparel merchandise

apparel merchandise

Merchandising is the methods, practices, and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity
In retail commerce, visual display merchandising means maximizing merchandise sales using product design, selection, packaging, pricing, and display that stimulates consumers to spend more. This includes disciplines in pricing and discounting, physical presentation of products and displays, and the decisions about which products should be presented to which customers at what time.

This annual cycle of merchandising differs between countries and even within them, particularly relating to cultural customs like holidays, and seasonal issues like climate and local sporting and recreation.

In the United States for example, the basic retail cycle begins in early January with merchandise for Valentine's Day, which is not until mid-February. Following this, Easter is the major holiday, while springtime clothing and garden-related merchandise is already arriving at stores, often as early as mid-winter. Mothers Day and Fathers Day are next, with graduation gifts (typically small consumer electronics like digital cameras) often being marketed as "dads and grads" in June (though most semesters end in May). Summer merchandise is next, including patriotic-themed products with the American flag, out by Memorial Day in preparation for Independence Day (with Flag Day in between).

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

textile class

textile class
As a fashion designer or stylist, it is important to be intimately familiar with the different textiles. The selection of the material is a very important part of the overall finished product. The design process typically starts with a design drawing. Once the correct design is finalized, the material must be selected and a prototype sewn. It is very common to change the materials multiple times during this process, until the perfect combination is found.

Textile classes should be taught by qualified instructors. In many programs or courses, the bulk of the material is taught by a fashion designer and a guest lecturer from a textile mill is brought in to provide detailed information on how the different products are made. Take advantage of this opportunity to further your understanding of how different products are made, treated, and altered. This is essential to designing clothing that moves as expected.

textile classes

textile classes
The level of textile classes varies quite widely, depending on the institute and its target audience. Read the course description carefully, and make sure it provides the appropriate level of detail for your needs. If you are taking a textile class as part of a diploma program, make sure the course is appropriate and will be accepted for credit by the institute. People taking a textile class for personal interest should make sure they have the background necessary to understand all the concepts being presented. This will ensure the experience is an enjoyable one.

textile class

textile class
Textile class provides instruction on the use of a range of materials. Understanding the different materials and their treatments and issues is very important for careers as a fashion designer, stylist, or seamstress. There are three different ways to find textile classes: as part of a fashion design or interior design program at the college level, through a specialized fashion institute, or from a community center. Selecting the best textile class for you depends on your long term goals and current skill level.

Monday, March 1, 2010


Polyethylene Terephthalate CAS-No.: 25038-59-9 Synonym / abbreviations: polyester, PET, PES Sum Formula: H-[C10H8O4]-n=60-120 OH, mol unit weight: 192,17

There are several reasons for the importance of Polyester:

* The relatively easy accessible raw materials PTA or DMT and MEG
* The very well understood and described simple chemical process of polyester synthesis
* The low toxicity level of all raw materials and side products during polyester production and processing
* The possibility to produce PET in a closed loop at low emissions to the environment
* The outstanding mechanical and chemical properties of polyester
* The recyclability
* The wide variety of intermediate and final products made of polyester.


* Aramid
* Forensic engineering
* Polymers
* Plastic
* Nylon 6
* Nylon 6-6
* Ballistic Nylon
* Rip-Stop Nylon
* Cordura
* Nylon riots
* step-growth polymerization
* Nylon-eating bacteria

Sunday, February 28, 2010

Care symbol care instruction

Woven care label symbol instruction
Printing care label symbol instruction
Tagless care lable symbol instruction
Heat tranfer care symbol instruction

Clothing or garment should have a woven or nonwoven care label attached.
The label should include fabric content, country of origin, and proper care instruction.
See care label instruction and symbols below.