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Saturday, August 29, 2009

label products

label products

A label is a piece of paper, polymer, cloth, metal, or other material affixed to a container or article, on which is printed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article.

Labels have many uses: product identification, name tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication. Special types of labels called digital labels (printed through a digital printing) can also have special constructions such as RFID tags, security printing, and sandwich process labels.

Labels can be attached by:

Heat activated adhesives: for example, "in-mold labeling" can be part of blow molding containers and employs heat activated adhesives. Hot melt adhesives are also used.
Pressure sensitive adhesives (also called PSA or self-stick) are applied with light pressure without activation or heat. PSA labels often have release liners which protect the adhesive and assist label handling.
Rivets used to attach information plates to industrial equipment
Shrink wrap for printed shrinkable labels placed over packages and then heated to shrink them
Sewing for clothing, tents, mattresses, industrial sacks, etc.
Wet glue (starch, dextrin, PVA [disambiguation needed], etc) or water moistenable gummed adhesive
Yarn or twine for tying on a label
Piggyback labels are made from combining two layers of adhesive substrate [2]. The bottom layer forms the backing for the top. The label can be applied to any object as normal, the top layer can be a removable label that can be applied elsewhere, which may change the message or marking on the remaining label underneath. Often used on Express mail envelopes.
Smart labels have RFID chips embedded under the label stock.
Asset Labels / Tags are used for marking fixed and non-fixed assets. They are usually tamper-evident, permanent or frangible and usually contain a barcode for electronic identification using readers.
Blockout labels are not see-through at all, concealing what lies underneath with a strong gray adhesive.
Radioactive labels The use of radioactive isotopes of chemical elements, such as carbon-14, to allow the in vivo tracking of chemical compounds.
Laser Labels are generally die cut on 8.5" x 11" sheets, and come in many different shapes, sizes, and materials. Laser label material is a nonporous stock made to withstand the intense heat of laser printers and copiers.
Inkjet Labels are generally die cut on 8.5" x 11" sheets (US letter) and a4 size, and come in many different shapes, sizes, and materials. Inkjet label material is a porous stock made to accept ink and dye from your inkjet printer. One of the more modern inkjet label material stocks is waterproof printable inkjet material commonly used for soap or shower gel containers.
Security Labels are used for Anti-counterfeiting, Brand protection, tamper-evident seals, etc. These combine a number of overt and covert features to make reproduction difficult. The use of security printing, Holography, Embossing, bar codes, RFID chips, custom printing, weak (or weakened) backings, etc. is common. They are used for authentication, theft reduction, and protection against counterfeit and are commonly used on ID cards, credit cards, packaging, and products from CDs to electronics to clothing.
AntiMicrobial Labels With the growth in hospital acquired infections such as MRSA and E-Coli the use of Antimicrobial labels in infection sensitive areas of hospitals are helping in combating these types of microbes.

bar code labels

bar code labels

A barcode (also bar code) is an optical machine-readable representation of data. Originally, bar codes represented data in the widths (lines) and the spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or 1D (1 dimensional) barcodes or symbologies. They also come in patterns of squares, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns within images termed 2D (2 dimensional) matrix codes or symbologies. Although 2D systems use symbols other than bars, they are generally referred to as barcodes as well.

The first use of barcodes was to label railroad cars, but they were not commercially successful until they were used to automate supermarket checkout systems, a task in which they have become almost universal. Their use has spread to many other roles as well, tasks that are generically referred to as Auto ID Data Capture (AIDC). Other systems are attempting to make inroads in the AIDC market, but the simplicity, universality and low cost of barcodes has limited the role of these other systems. It costs about US$0.005 to implement a barcode compared to passive RFID which still costs about US$0.07 to US$0.30 per tag.

Barcodes can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers, or scanned from an image by special software. In Japan most mobile phones have built-in scanning software for 2D codes, and similar software is becoming available on smartphone platforms.

Polyester labels

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P), is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber.

Depending on its processing and thermal history, polyethylene terephthalate may exist both as an amorphous (transparent) and as a semi-crystalline material. The semi crystalline material might appear transparent (spherulites < 500 nm) or opaque and white (spherulites up to a size of some µm) depending on its crystal structure and spherulite size. Its monomer (bis-ß-hydroxyterephthalate) can be synthesized by the esterification reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a byproduct, or by transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate with methanol as a byproduct. Polymerization is through a polycondensation reaction of the monomers (done immediately after esterification/transesterification) with ethylene glycol as the byproduct (the ethylene glycol is directly recycled in production).

The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibers (in excess of 60%) with bottle production accounting for around 30% of global demand. In discussing textile applications, PET is generally referred to as simply "polyester" while "PET" is used most often to refer to packaging applications.

Some of the trade names of PET products are Dacron, Diolen, Tergal, Terylene, and Trevira fibers,[1] Cleartuf, Eastman PET and Polyclear bottle resins, Hostaphan, Melinex, and Mylar films, and Arnite, Ertalyte, Impet, Rynite and Valox injection molding resins. The polyester industry makes up about 18% of world polymer production and is third after polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP).

Nylon model

Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material, first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938), followed more famously by women's stockings ("nylons"; 1940). It is made of repeating units linked by peptide bonds (another name for amide bonds) and is frequently referred to as polyamide (PA). Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic polymer. There are two common methods of making nylon for fiber applications. In one approach, molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with molecules containing amine (NH2) groups on each end. The resulting nylon is named on the basis of the number of carbon atoms separating the two acid groups and the two amines. These are formed into monomers of intermediate molecular weight, which are then reacted to form long polymer chains.

Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires.

Nylon fibers are used in many applications, including fabrics, bridal veils, carpets, musical strings, and rope.

Solid nylon is used for mechanical parts such as machine screws, gears and other low- to medium-stress components previously cast in metal. Engineering-grade nylon is processed by extrusion, casting, and injection molding. Solid nylon is used in hair combs. Type 6/6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of nylon, and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of molded nylon. Nylon is available in glass-filled variants which increase structural and impact strength and rigidity, and molybdenum sulfide-filled variants which increase lubricity.

Aramids are another type of polyamide with quite different chain structures which include aromatic groups in the main chain. Such polymers make excellent ballistic fibres.