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Saturday, November 15, 2008

Viscose care symbol

Viscose is a viscous organic liquid  used to make rayon and cellophaneCellulose from wood or cotton fibres is treated with sodium hydroxide, then mixed with carbon disulfide to form cellulose xanthate, which is dissolved in more sodium hydroxide. The resulting viscose is extruded into an acid bath either through a slit to make cellophane, or through a spinneret to make rayon. The acid converts the viscose back into cellulose.
  Viscose was first used for coating fabrics, a purpose for which it is quite suitable. However, when Cross and his partners tried to make solid objects like umbrella handles they were found to be much too brittle.

Further development led to viscose being spun into thread for embroidery and trimmings. Eventually, after Samuel Courtauld & Co. had taken over in 1904, Viscose manufacture became big business. By the twenties and thirties it had almost completely replaced the traditional cotton and wool for women's stockings and underwear. Similar changes occurred in the US and in Europe, too. Viscose was also being used for linings and furnishing fabrics; providing the staple for towels and table-cloths and was being made into high tenacity yarn for tires. Yet other uses included the manufacture of sponges and absorbent cloths.

Making viscose film had been tried by Cross in the 1890s but it was in Switzerland and France that major successes were achieved. By 1913 C.T.A. established La Cellophane SA. Ten years later DuPont Cellophane Co. was set up in the USA and in 1935 British Cellophane Ltd was established in BridgwaterSomerset.

Viscose is a soft material, used in mostly tops, coats and jackets.

Viscose is currently becoming less common because of the polluting effects of carbon disulfide and other by-products of the process, forcing the Bridgwater factory to close in 2005.

  Viscose is used mainly for fine, fashionable articles and linings.

Whilst in general dry cleaning is recommended for suits and jackets, it is possible to wash blouses and other garments without problems at home - provided it says so on the  care symbol. As long as you take note of the symbols on the care label and of the instructions that follow below, your "best things" will be like new and with you for a long time.

Pre-sorting prevents colours running.
Coloureds and prints should always be washed separately from other articles. 

Use fine detergents.
Do not use chlorine bleach. 

Half loads give the best wash.
Best results are obtained in terms of cleaning and minimal creasing where the drum or hand-wash solution are at a maximum 50% capacity. 

A gentle wash cycle is the ultimate. 
Viscose articles do not need or want anything in excess of a cycle at 40°C maximum. A gentle spin will suffice. 

Viscose is self-drying.
Clothing is best hung up damp and pulled into shape. 

A little ironing is a good thing.
Viscose articles may be pressed using a moderately hot steam iron.

Silk care symbol

Silk is a natural protein fibre, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.

"Wild silks" are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and can be artificially cultivated. A variety of wild silks have been known and used in ChinaSouth Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. They differ from the domesticated varieties in color and texture, and cocoons gathered in the wild usually have been damaged by the emerging moth before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths. Commercially reared silkworm pupae are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, or by piercing them with a needle, allowing the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm.

There is some evidence that small quantities of wild silk were already being produced in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East by the time the stronger, cultivated silk from China began to be imported (Hill 2003, Appendix C).

Silks are produced by several other insects, but only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacture. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects that complete metamorphosis, but also by some adult insects such as webspinners. Silk production is especially common in the Hymenoptera (beeswasps, and ants), and is sometimes used in nest construction. Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably variousarachnids such as spiders (see spider silk).

 Care symbol  label

Gentle in order to preserve its qualities.  Hand wash in cool water: use mild soap powders.  Sensitive to heat (therefore colorfast problems)  and rough treatment. Wash color separately.  Prints: dry flat. Do not soak. Creases.

Rayon care symbol

Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. Rayon is produced from naturally occurring polymers and therefore it is not a trulysynthetic fiber, nor is it a natural fiber: it is a semi-synthetic fiber [1]. It is known by the names viscose rayon and art silk in the textile industry. It usually has a high lustre quality giving it a bright shine. Rayon contains the chemical elements carbonhydrogen, and oxygen.
  Care Symbol label
Wash at a low  temperature, preferably by hand.  Washing shrinkage between 4 and 7%. Use  mild soap powders. Creases easily. Cool Iron.

Linen care symbol

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum. Linen is labor intensive to manufacture, but when it is made into garments, it is valued for its exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. It is superior to cotton in this regard.[citation needed][who?]

Textiles in linen weave pattern made of cottonhemp and other non-flax fibers may also be loosely, if improperly, referred to as "linen". Such fabrics generally have their own specific names other than linen, for example, fine cotton yarn in linen weave is called Madapolam.

The collective term linens is still often used generically to describe a class of woven and evenknitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles. The name linens is retained because traditionally, linen was used for many of these items. In the past, the word "linens" was also used to mean lightweight undergarments such as shirtschemises, waistshirts, lingerie, and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, which were manufactured almost exclusively of linen.

Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics which date back to about 8000 B.C. have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Linen was used in the Mediterranean in the pre-Christian age.

Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen because it was seen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand spun yarns, were extremely fine, and cannot be matched by modern spinning techniques.

Today linen is usually an expensive textile, and is produced in relatively small quantities. It has a long "staple" (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers


   Before laundering your linen, please, read carefully the instructions on our product information sheet or on the care label attached. 

Here you will find a few suggestions that will help you retain the beauty and long life of your linen. 

Washing Tips

Linen just loves to be washed and ironed. The more linen is washed the softer, nicer and shinier it becomes. 

First, use the right washing agents. The detergents that contain bleaching agents are perfect for white linen but should not be used for washing colored linen or else your linen would get discolored or spotted. Only bleach-free detergents must be used for washing colored articles. Use pure soap or gentle detergents. Soap works best in soft water. Never use chlorine bleaches to avoid damage to the fiber. Only oxygen-type bleaches should be used for white linen laundering. However, no bleach should be used when washing spun, colored or embroidered linen. 

If the water you use is hard due to a high lime content add a softening agent, especially for darker-colored articles. Use plenty of water because linen is very water-absorbent. Water temperature should be selected according to the care instructions attached to your linen article. If the temperature exceeds the recommended maximum temperature it may lead to fabric shrinkage. 

Never wash darker-colored pieces together with lighter-colored articles - if you do, you risk spoiling both. 

Do not overload your washing machine, so linen can move freely - if you do, the fabric color may get streaked. When machine washing, put delicate or fringed items in a pillowcase or a net bag to reduce wear and tear. 

Whether washing by hand or by machine, linen items have to be thoroughly rinsed in plenty of water to remove all soap, detergent and residual soil and prevent the formation of the so-called age spots due to the oxidation effect. 

Do not soak, boil off, rub or wring out embroidered articles. 

When washing colored embroidered articles, add a touch of salt. Also add a touch of vinegar when rinsing colored linen - that will help prevent color fading. 

Remove stains when still fresh. If allowed to set, stains may be hard, if impossible, to remove at a later date (for more information see our Stain Removal Tips below). 

If you take your linens to an outside laundry, don't forget to tell them that your articles are linen-made. 

Drying Tips

Do not wring out linen before drying. Whatever drying method you choose - line drying, tumbler drying or lying out on a terry towel - make sure your linen articles are slightly damp before ironing. That will make your subsequent ironing job easier. Drying white linen in the sun helps retain the original white color. It is a good idea to lay out your laundered item, pull it into shape and pat it flat to minimize wrinkles and thereby save your ironing time. Over-drying leads to the loss of the natural moisture content and makes linen brittle. Over-dried items restore their natural moisture content after re-absorbing moisture from the air. 

Ironing Tips

As it has just been pointed ou,t ironing is easier when the laundered items are still slightly damp. Be sure that the soleplate of your iron is clean and smooth. If you have a steam iron check out the soleplate for mineral deposits - they can cause brown spotting. Use well-padded boards with smooth heat-reflective covers - it will reduce your ironing time. Iron linen articles until they are smooth but not dry, then hang or spread them out to become bone-dry. 

If you postpone ironing until some later time put laundered items in a plastic bag and place it in the refrigerator or a freezer from 6 to 24 hours. It will help them remain damp and prevent mildew formation. 

For extra crispness spray the laundered items, especially napkins, with starch and iron at a medium to hot setting - it will allow you to fold napkins into a variety of fancy shapes. If you prefer a softer look, use spray-on fabric sizing. 

In case of light-colored linens, iron on the wrong side first, then on the right side to bring out the sheen. As regards dark-colored articles, iron on the wrong side only. 

When ironing embroidered linen, keep the embroidery stitches rounded and dimensional and iron on the wrong side on a soft terry towel to avoid the risk of flattening it out. Special care should be taken while ironing delicate lace and cutwork to avoid tearing it with the iron - use a press cloth to safeguard against it. Press cloth also helps to avoid press marks over seams, hems and pockets. 

Do not iron on a patterned cloth because there is a risk that it may get imprinted on the embroidery. Do not fold up the items just ironed - they should be kept spread out for some time to dry. 

Place a table next to the ironing board when ironing large items such as tablecloths. Roll finished sections of the cloth over the table rather than letting it pile up under the ironing board. You can prevent tablecloth creasing by rolling the tablecloth around a tube as you continue ironing. 

Dry Cleaning Tips

If care instructions provide for both dry cleaning and washing the choice is entirely yours. If you prefer dry cleaning to laundering, turn to dry cleaners who work on the premises. It would be also a good idea to find out whether solvents are regularly changed. If they are not, there is a risk that your white linens may turn gray or yellow. 

Storage Tips

Linen is best stored in a cool, dry and well-ventilated area. Always launder or dry-clean linen before storing to prevent mildew growth. If mildew does strike, brush the mold off outdoors to avoid spore scattering in your house, soak the item in an oxygen-bleach water solution, launder it and dry in the sun. Use pure linen, cotton or muslin and acid-free paper to protect against dust or as bags. Do not use synthetics or regular tissue paper, plastic bags, cedar chests or cardboard boxes for storing your linens. If linen articles are stored for a long time, refold them from time to time. 

Wool care symbol

Virgin wool is wool spun for the first time, as contrasted with shoddy.

Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers. As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Suchyarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years.

Ragg is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves.

Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface.

Woollen is a soft, short-staplecarded wool yarn typically used for knitting. In traditional weaving, woollen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom.

Wool classing is an occupation in which people are trained to produce uniform, predictable, low risk lines of wool. This is carried out by examining the characteristics of the wool in its raw state. The characteristics which a wool classer should examine are:

Breed of the sheep: Shedding breeds will increase the risk of medulated and/or pigmented fibres. Any sheep likely to have dark fibres should be shorn last to avoid contamination. The age of the sheep will have a bearing on the fibre diameter and value of wool, too.

Chemical usage: Ensure that all rules have been followed.

Brandsjowls and shanks: Must be removed from fleeces and broken.

Stain: Must be removed from fleeces and identified in a separate line.

Wool crimp: The number of bends per unit length along the wool fibre approximately indicates spinning capacity of the wool. fibres with a fine crimp have many bends and usually have a small diameter. Such fibre can be spun into fine yarns, with great lengths of yarn for a given weight of wool, and greater market value. Fine fibres may be utilised in the production of fine garments such as men's suits whereas the coarser fibres may be used for the production of carpet and other sturdy products. Crimp is measured in crimps per inch or crimps per centimetre. Average diameter or mean fibre diameter is measured in micrometres (microns). For generations, English wool-handlers categorized wool along the above lines estimating spinning capacity by eye and touch. This spread worldwide as the Bradford system.

Wool Strength (also known as tensile strength) determines wool's ability to withstand processing. Weaker wools produce more waste in carding and spinning. Weaker wools may be used for production of felt, or combined with other fibres, etc.

Wool color: Indicates whether wool is able to be dyed in light shades. Color may be graded depending upon the natural color, impurities and various stains present. Severely stained wool decreases prices dramatically. However, it is difficult to assess colour accurately without proper measurement, since some stains will wash out in the processing, whereas others are quite persistent.

The fleece is skirted to remove excess frib, seed and burr etc to leave the fleece as reasonably even as possible in good respects. The parts of wool taken from a sheep are graded separately. The fleece forming the bulk of the yield is placed with other fleece wool as the main line, other pieces such as the neck, belly and skirtings (inferior wool from edges) are sold for such purposes where the shorter wools are required (for example: fillings, carpets, insulation). Whilst in some places crimp may determine which grade the fleece will be placed into, this subjective assessment is not always reliable and processors prefer that wools are measured objectively by qualified laboratories. Some of the superfine wool growers do in shed wool testing, but this can only be used as a guide. This enables wool classers to place wool into lines of a consistent quality. A shedhand, known as a wool presser, places the wool into approved wool packs in a wool press to produce a bale of wool that must meet regulations concerning its fastenings, length, weight and branding if it is to be sold at auction in Australasia. All Merino fleece wool sold at auction in Australia is objectively measured for fibre diameter, yield (including the amount of vegetable matter), staple length, staple strength and sometimes colour.

Classers are also responsible for ensuring that a pre-shearing check is made to ensure that the wool and sheep areas are free of possible contaminants. They are to supervise shed staff during shearing and train any inexperienced hands. At the end of shearing classers have to provide full documentation concerning the clip.

Friday, November 14, 2008

Definitions care label

(a) Care label means a permanent label or tag, containing regular care information and instructions, that is attached or affixed in such a manner that it will not become separated from the product and will remain legible during the useful life of the product.

(b) Certain Piece Goods means textile products sold by the piece from bolts or rolls for the purpose of making home sewn textile wearing apparel. This includes remnants, the fiber content of which is known, that are cut by or for a retailer but does not include manufacturers' remnants, up to ten yards long, that are clearly and conspicuously marked pound goods or fabrics of undetermined origin (i.e., fiber content is not known and cannot be easily ascertained) and trim, up to five inches wide.

(c) Dryclean means a commercial process by which soil is removed from products or specimens in a machine which uses any common organic solvent (e.g. petroleum, perchlorethylene, fluorocarbon). The process may also include adding moisture to the solvent, up to 75% relative humidity, hot tumble drying up to 160 degrees F (71 degrees C) and restoration by steam press or steam-air finishing.

(d) Machine Wash means a process by which soil is removed from products in a specially designed machine using water, detergent or soap and agitation. When no temperature is given, e.g., warm or cold, hot water up to 150 degrees F (66 degrees C) can be regularly used.

(e) Regular Care means customary and routine care, not spot care.

(f) Textile Product means any commodity, woven, knit or otherwise made primarily of fiber, yarn or fabric and intended for sale or resale, requiring care and maintenance to effectuate ordinary use and enjoyment.

(g) Textile Wearing Apparel means any finished garment or article of clothing made from a textile product that is customarily used to cover or protect any part of the body, including hosiery, excluding footwear, gloves, hats or other articles used exclusively to cover or protect the head or hands.

Textile wearing apparel.

This section applies to textile wearing apparel.

(a) Manufacturers and importers must attach care labels so that they can be seen or easily found when the product is offered for sale to consumers. If the product is packaged, displayed, or folded so that customers cannot see or easily find the label, the care information must also appear on the outside of the package or on a hang tag fastened to the product.

(b) Care labels must state what regular care is needed for the ordinary use of the product. In general, labels for textile wearing apparel must have either a washing instruction or a drycleaning instruction. If a washing instruction is included, it must comply with the requirements set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If a drycleaning instruction is included, it must comply with the requirements set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. If either washing or drycleaning can be used on the product, the label need have only one of these instructions. If the product cannot be cleaned by any available cleaning method without being harmed, the label must so state. [For example, if a product would be harmed both by washing and by drycleaning, the label might say "Do not wash -- do not dryclean," or "Cannot be successfully cleaned."] The instructions for washing and drycleaning are as follows:

(1) Washing, drying, ironing, bleaching and warning instructions must follow these requirements:

(i) Washing. The label must state whether the product should be washed by hand or machine. The label must also state a water temperature that may be used. However, if the regular use of hot water will not harm the product, the label need not mention any water temperature. [For example, "Machine wash" means hot, warm or cold water can be used.]

(ii) Drying. The label must state whether the product should be dried by machine or by some other method. If machine drying is called for, the label must also state a drying temperature that may be used. However, if the regular use of a high temperature will not harm the product, the label need not mention any drying temperature. [For example, "Tumble dry" means that a high, medium, or low temperature setting can be used.]

(iii) Ironing. Ironing must be mentioned on a label only if it will be needed on a regular basis to preserve the appearance of the product, or if it is required under paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section, Warnings. If ironing is mentioned, the label must also state an ironing temperature that may be used. However, if the regular use of a hot iron will not harm the product, the label need not mention any ironing temperature.

(iv) Bleaching. (A) If all commercially available bleaches can safely be used on a regular basis, the label need not mention bleaching.

(B) If all commercially available bleaches would harm the product when used on a regular basis, the label must say "No bleach" or "Do not bleach."

(C) If regular use of chlorine bleach would harm the product, but regular use of a non-chlorine bleach would not, the label must say "Only non-chlorine bleach, when needed."

(v) Warnings. (A) If there is any part of the prescribed washing procedure which consumers can reasonably be expected to use that would harm the product or others being washed with it in one or more washings, the label must contain a warning to this effect. The warning must use words "Do not," "No," "Only," or some other clear wording. [For example, if a shirt is not colorfast, its label should state "Wash with like colors" or "Wash separately." If a pair of pants will be harmed by ironing, its label should state "Do not iron."]

(B) Warnings are not necessary for any procedure that is an alternative to the procedure prescribed on the label. [For example, if an instruction states "Dry flat," it is not necessary to give the warning "Do not tumble dry."]

(2) Drycleaning. -- (i) General. If a drycleaning instruction is included on the label, it must also state at least one type of solvent that may be used. However, if all commercially available types of solvent can be used, the label need not mention any types of solvent. The terms "Drycleanable" or "Commercially Dryclean" may not be used in an instruction. [For example, if drycleaning in perchlorethylene would harm a coat, the label might say "Professionally dryclean: fluorocarbon or petroleum."]

(ii) Warnings. (A) If there is any part of the drycleaning procedure which consumers or drycleaners can reasonably be expected to use that would harm the product or others being cleaned with it, the label must contain a warning to this effect. The warning must use the words "Do not," "No," "Only," or some other clear wording. [For example, the drycleaning process normally includes moisture addition to solvent up to 75% relative humidity, hot tumble drying up to 160 degrees F and restoration by steam press or steam-air finish. If a product can be drycleaned in all solvents but steam should not be used, its label should state "Professionally dryclean. No steam."]

(B) Warnings are not necessary to any procedure which is an alternative to the procedure prescribed on the label. [For example, if an instruction states "Professionally dryclean, fluorocarbon," it is not necessary to give the warning "Do not use perchlorethylene."]

(c) A manufacturer or importer must establish a reasonable basis for care information by processing prior to sale:

(1) Reliable evidence that the product was not harmed when cleaned reasonably often according to the instructions on the label, including instructions when silence has a meaning. [For example, if a shirt is labeled "Machine wash. Tumble dry. Cool iron.," the manufacturer or importer must have reliable proof that the shirt is not harmed when cleaned by machine washing (in hot water), with any type of bleach, tumble dried (at a high setting), and ironed with a cool iron]; or

(2) Reliable evidence that the product or a fair sample of the product was harmed when cleaned by methods warned against on the label. However, the manufacturer or importer need not have proof of harm when silence does not constitute a warning. [For example, if a shirt is labeled "Machine wash warm. Tumble dry medium", the manufacturer need not have proof that the shirt would be harmed if washed in hot water or dried on high setting]; or

(3) Reliable evidence, like that described in paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section, for each component part of the product; or

(4) Reliable evidence that the product or a fair sample of the product was successfully tested. The tests may simulate the care suggested or warned against on the label; or

(5) Reliable evidence of current technical literature, past experience, or the industry expertise supporting the care information on the label; or

(6) Other reliable evidence.

1. Washing, Machine Methods:

a. Machine wash -- a process by which soil may be removed from products or specimens through the use of water, detergent or soap, agitation and a machine designed for this purpose. When no temperature is given, e.g., warm or cold, hot water up to 150°C) can be regularly used.

b. Warm -- initial water temperature setting 90°F (32°C) (hand comfortable).

c. Cold -- initial water temperature setting same as cold water tap up to 85°C).

d. Do not have commercially laundered -- do not employ a laundry which uses special formulations, sour rinses, extermely large loads or extermely high temperatures or which otherwise is employed for commercial, industrial or institutional use. Employ laundering methods designed for residential use or use in a self-service establishment.

e. Small load -- smaller than normal washing load.

f. Delicate cycle or gentle cycle -- slow agitation and reduced time.

g. Durable press cycle or permanent press cycle -- cool down rinse or cold rinse before reduced spinning.

h. Separately -- alone.

i. With like colors -- with colors of similar hue and intensity.

j. Wash inside out -- turn product inside out to protect face of fabric.

k. Warm rinse -- initial water temperature setting 90°F (32°C).

l. Cold rinse -- initial water temperature setting same as cold water tap up to 85°C).

m. Rinse thoroughly -- rinse several times to remove detergent, soap, and bleach.

n. No spin or Do not spin -- remove material start of final spin cycle.

o. No wring or Do not wring -- do not use roller wringer, nor wring by hand.

2. Washing, Hand Methods:

a. Hand wash -- a process by which soil may be manually removed from products or specimens through the use of water, detergent or soap, and gentle squeezing action. When no temperature is given, e.g., warm or cold, hot water up to 150°C) can be regularly used.

b. Warm -- initial water temperature 90°F (32°C) (hand comfortable).

c. Cold -- initial water temperature same as cold water tap up to 85°C).

d. Separately -- alone.

e. With like colors -- with colors of similar hue and intensity.

f. No wring or twist -- handle to avoid wrinkles and distortion.

g. Rinse thoroughly -- rinse several times to remove detergent, soap, and bleach.

h. Damp wipe only -- surface clean with damp cloth or sponge.

3. Drying, All Methods:

a. Tumble dry -- use machine dryer. When no temperature setting is given, machine drying at a hot setting may be regularly used.

b. Medium -- set dryer at medium heat.

c. Low -- set dryer at low heat.

d. Durable press or Permanent press -- set dryer at permanent press setting.

e. No heat -- set dryer to operate without heat.

f. Remove promptly -- when items are dry, remove immediately to prevent wrinkling.

g. Drip dry -- hang dripping wet with or without hand shaping and smoothing.

h. Line dry -- hang damp from line or bar in or out of doors.

i. Line dry in shade -- dry away from sun.

j. Line dry away from heat -- dry away from heat.

k. Dry flat -- lay out horizontally for drying.

l. Block to dry -- reshape to original dimensions while drying.

m. Smooth by hand -- by hand, while wet, remove wrinkles, straighten seams and facings.

4. Ironing and Pressing:

a. Iron -- Ironing is needed. When no temperature is given iron at the highest temperature setting may be regularly used.

b. Warm iron -- medium temperature setting.

c. Cool iron -- lowest temperature setting.

d. Do not iron -- item not to be smoothed or finished with an iron.

e. Iron wrong side only -- article turned inside out for ironing or pressing.

f. No steam or Do not steam -- steam in any form not to be used.

g. Steam only -- steaming without contact pressure.

h. Steam press or Steam iron -- use iron at steam setting.

i. Iron damp -- articles to be ironed should feel moist.

j. Use press cloth -- use a dry or a damp cloth between iron and fabric.

5. Bleaching:

a. Bleach when needed -- all bleaches may be used when necessary.

b. No bleach or Do not bleach -- no bleaches may be used.

c. Only non-chlorine bleach, when needed -- only the bleach specified may be used when necessary. Chlorine bleach may not be used.

6. Washing or Drycleaning:

a. Wash or dryclean, any normal method -- can be machine washed in hot water, can be machine dried at a high setting, can be ironed at a hot setting, can be bleached with all commercially available bleaches and can be drycleaned with all commercially available solvents.

7. Drycleaning, All Procedures:

a. Dryclean -- a process by which soil may be removed from products or specimens in a machine which uses any common organic solvent (for example, petroleum, perchlorethylene, fluorocarbon) located in any commercial establishment. The process may include moisture addition to solvent up to 75% relative humidity, hot tumble drying up to 160°F (71°C) and restoration by steam press or steam-air finishing.

b. Professionally dryclean -- use the drycleaning process but modified to ensure optimum results either by a drycleaning attendant or through the use of a drycleaning machine which permits such modifications or both. Such modifications or special warnings must be included in the care instruction.

c. PetroleumFluorocarbon, or Perchlorethylene -- employ solvent(s) specified to dryclean the item.

d. Short cycle -- reduced or minimum cleaning time, depending upon solvent used.

e. Minimum extraction -- least possible extraction time.

f. Reduced moisture or Low moisture -- decreased relative humidity.

g. No tumble or Do not tumble -- do not tumble dry.

h. Tumble warm -- tumble dry up to 120°C).

i. Tumble cool -- tumble dry at room temperature.

j. Cabinet dry warm -- cabinet dry up to 120°C).

k. Cabinet dry cool -- cabinet dry at room temperature.

l. Steam only -- employ no contact pressure when steaming.

m. No steam or Do not steam -- do not use steam in pressing, finishing, steam cabinets or wands.

8. Leather and Suede Cleaning:

a. Leather clean -- have cleaned only by a professional cleaner who uses special leather or suede care methods.

Clothing Care Labels

Caring for fabric in the proper way is important enough that Federal Regulations have been enacted requiring garment manufacturers to provide information about how to care for the garment. This information must be attached to the garment and must be readable upon purchase. The following guide will aid you in understanding the instructions on the Care Label of your garment. We encourage you to check the Care Labels on your garments and other fabric products and follow the instructions given for washing, drying and ironing. Doing so will prolong the life and quality of your garment.
Block to DryMaintain original size and shape while drying.
Cold WaterWater with a temperature up to 85 degrees F.
Cold Wash / RinseUse cold water or set washing machine for cold water.
Damp WipeClean surface with damp cloth or sponge. Do not machine wash or dry.
Delicate Cycle /
Gentle Cycle
Use appropriate machine setting with slow agitation and spin and reduced washing time. Or, wash by hand.
Do Not BleachDo not use bleach of any type.
Do Not Dry CleanUse recommended care instructions. Dry cleaning chemicals should not be used.
Do Not IronDo not iron or press with heat.
Do Not SpinRemove garment before spin cycle begins.
Do Not Use
Chlorine Bleach
Do not use chlorine bleach. Oxygen bleaches may be used.
Do Not WringHang dry, drip dry or flat dry only. Handle to prevent wrinkling and damage or distortion of fabric.
Drip DryHang wet and allow to dry with hand shaping only.
Dry Clean OnlyGarment should be dry cleaned only, including self-service dry cleaning.
Dry FlatLay garment horizontally flat on breathable surface to dry. Do not use automatic dryer.
Hand WashLaunder only by hand in lukewarm (hand-comfortable) water. May be bleached. May be dry cleaned.
Hand Wash OnlyLaunder only by hand in lukewarm (hand-comfortable) water. May be bleached. Do not dry clean.
Hand Wash SeparatelyLaunder by hand in lukewarm (hand-comfortable water alone or with like colors. May be bleached. Do not dry clean.
Home Launder OnlyWash, bleach, dry and press by any customary method. Dry cleaning chemicals should not be used.
Hot WashUse hot water or set washing machine for hot water.
Iron CoolSet iron at lowest setting.
Iron DampDampen garment before ironing.
Iron HotSet iron at hot or hottest setting.
Iron Wrong Side OnlyTurn garment inside out to iron.
Line DryHang damp and allow to dry. Do not dry in automatic dryer.
Machine WashWash, bleach, dry and press by any customary method, including commercial laundering and dry cleaning. If no temperature is specified, water up to 150 degrees F. can be used.
No HeatWhen drying, choose the "no heat" or "air dry" setting on your automatic dryer. Or, air dry without a machine.
Permanent PressUse appropriate machine setting with warm wash, cool rinse and reduced spin cycle.
Dry Clean Only
Use the services of a licensed, professional dry cleaner only. Do not use self service dry cleaning.
Remove PromptlyTumble dry. In absence of cool down cycle, remove at once when tumbling stops.
Steam IronIron or press with steam.
Tumble DryDry in tumble dryer at specified setting. If no temperature is specified, a hot setting may be used.
Warm IronSet iron at medium setting.
Warm Wash / RinseUse warm water or warm washing machine setting.
Warm WaterWater with a temperature between 90 and 110 degrees F. "Hand-comfortable".
Wash Inside OutTurn garment inside out before washing to protect fabric.
Wash SeparatelyWash alone or with like colors.